Materials and devices

Materials like polymers, oxides, semiconductors and liquid crystals are employed in devices because of their specific properties like electrical, magnetic, thermal, ferroelectric or piezoelectric properties. Electronic materials are characteristically used as primary elements in many devices such as displays and LEDs usually in mobile phones, laptops, tablets, computers, LED bulbs, GPS devices etc. The advancement in state of materials such as liquid crystals, organic semiconductors and electroluminescent materials leads to the conversion from CRT based displays to LCD and LED based displays. The improvement in materials with high permeability and permittivity helps in high density energy storage capacity. Diodes formed by two blocks of silicon with opposite type of conductivity are the basic building block in numerous devices such as solar cells, light emitting diodes and solid-state Lasers. Development and improvement in solar cell efficiency, energy harvesting, microprocessor speed and data storage capacity are the initial point for the advancement in electronics.